Financing Stability:

How humanitarian and development assistance must rise to the challenge

Confronted with enormous and complex human security challenges, the international community needs to think bigger and move faster in addressing current humanitarian crises, invest more ambitiously for the long term and embed development as a core policy tool to prevent future crises.

This briefing analyses some of the limitations of the current humanitarian and development financing system and makes recommendations on how development and humanitarian efforts can be more efficiently and effectively resourced.

Map displaying number of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (end-2015)

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Poverty Figures: The number and percentage of people living in extreme poverty were drawn from the World Bank ‘Poverty and Equity’ database, defined as people living on $1.90 (2011 PPPs) a day or less, released by the World Bank in November 2015. The World Bank database is updated annually as new survey data becomes available. Unfortunately, many countries lack data on extreme poverty, including Eritrea, Egypt and Equatorial Guinea and those countries have been marked in the map as ‘no data’. Extreme poverty data are published for developing countries only, therefore missing data has been noted as “N/A” for high-income countries.

Refugees/IDPs: All figures are from UNHCR data, as of end-2015 (released in June 2016). Due to the data lag, some of these figures may be out of date such as Germany who has over 1 million refugees. This UNHCR data excludes the 5.2 million Palestinian refugees who are registered with UNRWA. The refugee/IDP figures for Serbia and Kosovo have been counted twice under each country (from the 1999 war). Refugee/IDP figures for Saint-Martin (French side) and Sint Maarten (Dutch side) were combined and presented as St. Martin.

Definitions: Refugees: people who have crossed a border when fleeing from their home country. Internally Displaced Persons: people who have been forced to flee their home, but remain in their country.

Map displaying Percentage of People in Extreme Poverty (2013, or latest)

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Poverty Figures: The number and percentage of people living in extreme poverty were drawn from the World Bank ‘Poverty and Equity’ database, defined as people living on $1.90 (2011 PPPs) a day or less, released by the World Bank in November 2015. The World Bank database is updated annually as new survey data becomes available. Unfortunately, many countries lack data on extreme poverty, including Eritrea, Egypt and Equatorial Guinea and those countries have been marked in the map as ‘no data’. Extreme poverty data are published for developing countries only, therefore missing data has been noted as “N/A” for high-income countries.

Refugees/IDPs: All figures are the latest figure for 2015 from UNHCR data, as of end-2015. Due to the data lag, some of these figures may be out of date such as Germany who has over 1 million refugees. This UNHCR data excludes the 5.1 million Palestinian refugees who are registered with UNRWA. The refugee/IDP figures for Serbia and Kosovo have been counted twice under each country (from the 1999 war). Refugee/IDP figures for Saint-Martin (French side) and Sint Maarten (Dutch side) were combined and presented as St. Martin.

Definitions: Refugees: people who have crossed a border when fleeing from their home country. Internally Displaced Persons: people who have been forced to flee their home, but remain in their country.

DAC countries’ in-donor refugee costs as a % of total ODA (excluding debt relief), 2006-2015.

Source: OECD DAC Tables 1 (Total flows by donor) and OECD DAC Preliminary Release (April 2016).
Note: Net ODA includes both bilateral and multilateral flows, and excludes bilateral debt relief.

DAC countries’ humanitarian ODA, in-donor refugee costs, other in-donor costs, debt relief and other ODA, 2010-2014.

Sources: OECD DAC Tables 1 (Total flows by donor) and 5 (Aid by sector and donor); DAC Secretariat estimations of DAC members’ imputed multilateral contributions
to humanitarian assistance.
Note: ODA in 2014 constant prices. Net ODA includes both bilateral and multilateral flows. The ‘Other in-donor expenditures’ category includes the following spending: ‘I.A.5.1. Scholarships/training in donor country’, ‘I.A.5.2. Imputed student costs’, ‘I.A.7. Administrative costs not included elsewhere’, and ‘I.A.8.1. Development awareness’. Humanitarian ODA includes bilateral humanitarian ODA from the DAC 5 database and DAC Secretariat estimations of DAC members’ imputed multilateral contributions to humanitarian assistance. 2015 data not shown because they are not available for imputed multilateral humanitarian ODA and most of the other in-donor expenditures.

DAC countries’ ODA as a % of GNI, including and excluding in-donor refugee costs, 2015

Source: OECD DAC Preliminary Release (April 2016).
Note: Net ODA excludes bilateral debt relief, and includes both bilateral and multilateral flows.