Good governance and security are critical preconditions for achieving meaningful poverty reduction in Africa and must be front and centre in G8 and African efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals. In this year's report DATA has combined governance and security into one chapter, and in this chapter has evaluated G8 and African commitments and progress alongside one another. DATA has done this in recognition of the fundamental linkages between governance and security, and also of the basic co-dependence of G8 and African commitments in these sectors.
2007 saw improvements in governance and security in a number of countries, but also some very disappointing setbacks (i.e. Kenya) and continued stalemates in others (i.e. Zimbabwe). Despite these setbacks, however, across the continent the number of democracies is on the rise and the number of countries in conflict is in decline.
The issues of governance and security and the relationship between African efforts and G8 efforts should be seen in a somewhat symbiotic light: meaningful progress on governance and security in Africa will come only if G8 commitments are met by reciprocal African commitments. Similarly, to succeed, African governments must have support and, to some extent, incentives from G8 countries to make meaningful reforms. At Gleneagles, the G8 made a number of governance commitments to sign international conventions and treaties, such as the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), and to support African-owned initiatives such as the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). On peace and security, the G8 made a range of commitments; this report measures progress on promises surrounding peacekeeper training, supporting the African Standby Force and addressing the crisis in Sudan. It is important to note that the commitments monitored in this year's report do not represent the full portfolio of activities undertaken either by donors or by African governments to address governance or security, nor will fulfillment of these commitments alone adequately address the issues of governance and security in Africa.
$148bnEstimated GDP of African states lost to corruption.
The 2008 Report finds that donors have largely delivered on their commitments to sign and ratify the UN Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the OECD Convention Against Bribery, and that they are also supporting the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI ) and the APRM. African governments have stepped up efforts to promote good governance, with 28 countries signed up to participate in the APRM process and 15 countries meeting the conditions to be EITI candidate countries. Governance is improving in many countries across the continent, but much more remains to be done: too many countries - both among the G8 and in Africa - still need to move beyond simple ratification of an agreement and towards meaningful enforcement.
On peace and security, G8 donors committed to train 75,000 peacekeepers and to support the AU mission in Sudan and the African Standby Force (ASF). G8 donors are on track to meet the commitment to train 75,000 peacekeepers, but support to the AU mission in Sudan has been inadequate and efforts to support the ASF have been uneven across different donors. The Peacebuilding Commission and Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) have been established since Gleneagles and, though there are some funding shortfalls, both have made important progress in their first few years of operation. Efforts by African governments to improve security across the continent have picked up in recent years, and African countries continue to supply large numbers of peacekeeping troops for missions both within and outside of Africa. Progress in setting up the regional brigades for the ASF, however, has been uneven across regions and is a very clear area in which G8 support could be helpful.